“Response to Intervention (RtI) integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems. With RtI, schools use data to identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities The four essential components of an RtI framework are screening, progress monitoring, multi-level or multi-tier prevention system, and data-based decision making.”

    (source: rti4success.org)


    The chief purpose of the Response to Intervention (RtI) Model at Cattaraugus-Little Valley Central School District is to improve the achievement and outcomes of our students while providing interventions that best meet their needs. Through this process, we aim to address needs of students that historically have not been met without a referral to the Committee on Special Education. It is our hope as a team, that we can better serve our students prior to a CSE referral. This will allow our district to offer a less restrictive learning environment to many students who would otherwise have been referred to CSE and to provide increased attention to those students who do receive a CSE referral and subsequent classification.




    Response to Intervention (RtI) is a systemic strategy that combines data-driven problem solving with a focus on research-based practice, implemented with fidelity, to maximize the achievement of ALL students. The RtI model supports that belief that early intervention is the key to prevent failures and maximizes the effectiveness of grade level curriculum and instruction. It is not an initiative or program, but rather a framework for providing high quality curriculum and instruction to all students and intervention support for some. The effective implementation of a RtI model will contribute to more meaningful identification of learning and behavioral problems, improve instructional quality, provide all students with the best opportunities to succeed in school, and assist with the identification of learning disabilities and other issues.  


    A Multi-Tier System of Supports (MTSS) framework is designed to provide educational equity for all students. The framework includes high quality instructional and assessment elements implemented with fidelity and driven by data that accurately represents the effectiveness of instruction and the responsiveness of students.   

    For a school or district to make the claim that they are “doing MTSS,” attention to and progress concerning each of these elements should be ongoing:

    1. Universal Screening  

    2. Data-Based Decision Making and Problem Solving

    3. Continuous Progress Monitoring  

    4. Continuum of Evidence-Based Practices:  i) core curriculum is provided for all students; ii) modification of the core is arranged for students who are identified as needing targeted instruction; iii) specialized and intensive curriculum is provided for students who are intensive in need  

    5. Focus on Fidelity of Implementation  


    Universal Screening

    • Universal screening is the systematic assessment of all students on academic and/or social-emotional indicators for the purpose of identifying students who are at-risk, and may require support that varies in terms of level, intensity and duration.  

    Data-Based Decision Making and Problem Solving

    • The hallmark of an effective MTSS framework is the use of a data -based decision making process  

    • Assessments and data used should be timely, matched to the learning targets, valid, and reliable

    • The cycle of screening, validating, planning, implementing, progress monitoring and adjusting should be faithfully adhered to in each tier of instruction  

    Continuous Progress Monitoring

    • In order to adjust instruction in a timely manner and not lose or waste instructional time, monitoring that matches instruction and increases in frequency with student need is essential in maximizing student progress.  

    Continuum of Evidence-Based Practices

    • Use of a continuum of practices and programs with proven effectiveness to meet the learning goals for the population being served is critical to minimizing the number of students who are “curricular-impaired.” The Components of this continuum include:  

    • High Quality Tier 1 (Core) Instruction  

      • Clear learning expectations along with brief reviews of previous learning  

      • Overt modeling  

      • High student engagement and opportunities to respond  

      • Frequent incremental and descriptive feedback  

      • Follow-up instruction  

      • Distributed practice Differentiation  

    • Targeted and Intensive Instruction that increases in terms of intensity and duration as progress monitoring of student progress determines need:  

      • Based on student data, instruction should increase in intensity and duration until student has reached mastery  

      • Programs, procedures, and routines should be proven in terms of efficiency and effectiveness for the skills needed  

      • Increased academic need of student should be matched by increased teacher skill  

      • Frequent progress monitoring should direct ongoing instruction and feedback  

    Focus on Fidelity of Implementation

    • Strong initial training and periodic fidelity checks of instructional implementation are critical  

    • Continuous research into research- and evidence-based practices for interventions

    • Frequent checks to ensure the implementation of interventions with fidelity

    Source: Michigan's Integrated Behavior & Learning Support Initiative. An Abstract Regarding Multi-Tier System of Supports (MTSS) and Michigan's Integrated Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (MiBLSi).  https://miblsi.org/sites/default/files/Documents/MIBLSI_Model/MTSS/MiBLSi%20MTSS%20Abstract%20May%202015.pdf  


    The strategic integration within the MTSS model revolves around the premise that reading and behavior can impact each other. Behavior and reading are important factors in a student’s ability to learn and engage in school. Evidence suggests that students perform better in school when both areas are addressed regularly. Students may make literacy gains in a reading-only model, but the gains are even greater when exposed to both behavior and reading supports (Stewart, Benner, Martella, & Marchand-Martella, 2007).


    More time spent on reading instruction can in turn improve behavior. High-quality reading lessons keep students engaged, meaning they are less likely to look for distractions and exhibit problem behaviors (Sanford, 2006; Preciado, Horner, Baker, 2009). Also, as students become better readers, they are more likely to stay engaged in learning activities. In contrast, struggling readers may look for ways to avoid any activity that involves reading (McIntosh, Horner, Chard, Dickey, & Braun, 2008).