New York State Teaching Standards

  • I. Knowledge of Students and Student Learning 
    II. Knowledge of Content and Instructional Planning
    III. Instructional Practice
    IV. Learning Environment
    V. Assessment for Student Learning
    VI. Professional Responsibilities and Collaboration
    VII. Professional Growth

    Standard I: Knowledge of Students and Student Learning
    Teachers acquire knowledge of each student, and demonstrate knowledge of student development and learning to promote achievement for all students.

    Element I.1: Teachers demonstrate knowledge of child and adolescent development, including students’ cognitive, language, social, emotional, and physical developmental levels.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers describe orally or in writing an understanding of the developmental characteristics of their students.
    b. Teachers create developmentally appropriate lessons that address students’ learning differences and needs.
    c. Teachers implement lessons and modify instruction based upon students’ developmental needs.
    Element I.2: Teachers demonstrate knowledge of current research in learning and language acquisition theories and processes.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers design lesson plans and adjust instruction to include a variety of strategies that support the learning needs of each student.
    b. Teachers design lesson plans and adjust instruction to include a variety of strategies that support the language acquisition needs of each student.
    c. Teachers explain their instructional decisions citing current research.
    Element I.3: Teachers demonstrate knowledge of and are responsive to diverse learning needs, strengths, interests, and experiences of all students.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers vary and modify instruction to meet the diverse learning needs of each student.
    b. Teachers create,deliver,and adapt instruction to add research student’s strengths, interests, and experiences.
    Element I.4: Teachers acquire knowledge of individual students from students, families, guardians, and/or caregivers to enhance student learning.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers utilize strategies that enable two-way communication with each student’s parents, guardians, and/or caregivers.
    b. Teachers use a variety of techniques to accommodate the communication needs of each student’s parents, guardians, and/or caregivers.
    Element I.5: Teachers demonstrate knowledge of and are responsive to the economic, social, cultural, linguistic, family, and community factors that influence their students’ learning.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers incorporate a knowledge and understanding of the school community when planning and implementing instruction.
    b. Teachers incorporate an understanding of their students’ strengths and limitations, and the environmental factors that influence their students’ learning.
    c. Teachers attend to an individual student’s personal and family experiences by incorporating multiple perspectives.
    Element I.6: Teachers demonstrate knowledge and understanding of technological and information literacy and how they affect student learning.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers use technological tools and a variety of communication strategies to engage each student.
    b. Teachers assist students to become knowledgeable and critical consumers and users of quality information.

    Standard II: Knowledge of Content and Instructional Planning
    Teachers know the content they are responsible for teaching, and plan instruction that ensures growth and achievement for all students.

    Element II.1 Teachers demonstrate knowledge of the content they teach, including relationships among central concepts, tools of inquiry, structures and current developments within their discipline(s).
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers incorporate key concepts during instruction through the use of multiple representations and explanations.
    b. Teachers engage students to use key disciplinary language with comprehension through instruction.
    c. Teachers demonstrate the effective use of current developments in pedagogy and content.
    d. Teachers design learning experiences that foster student understanding of key disciplinary themes.
    e. Teachers demonstrate knowledge of the learning standards and their application throughout their instruction and practice.
    Element II.2 Teachers understand how to connect concepts across disciplines, and engage learners in critical and innovative thinking and collaborative problem-solving related to real world contexts.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers facilitate students’ ability to develop diverse social and cultural perspectives.
    b. Teachers incorporate perspectives from varied disciplines and interdisciplinary skills in their instruction.
    c. Teachers provide opportunities for students to engage in individual and collaborative critical thinking and problem solving.
    d. Teachers model and encourage effective use of interpersonal communication skills to build student capacity for collaboration.
    e. Teachers create opportunities for students to apply disciplinary and cross-disciplinary knowledge to personal experiences and real world problems.
    Element II.3 Teachers use a broad range of instructional strategies to make subject matter accessible.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers design instruction that reflects the multiple experiences, strengths, and learning needs of students.
    b. Teachers adapt instruction in response to various levels of student understanding.
    c. Teachers make meaningful connections between content and students’ life experiences.
    d. Teachers create opportunities for students to engage in self-directed learning.
    Element II.4 Teachers establish goals and expectations for all students that are aligned with learning standards and allow for multiple pathways to achievement.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers design learning experiences that a realigned with learning standards.
    b. Teachers articulate clear learning objectives that align with learning standards.
    c. Teachers include opportunities for students’ to achieve learning goals in a variety of ways.
    Element II.5 Teachers design relevant instruction that connects students’ prior understanding and experiences to new knowledge.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers determine current levels of students’ understanding and knowledge of content through questioning techniques, discussion, and other methods.
    b. Teachers address common misconceptions in the content area through instructional methods.
    c. Teachers design learning experiences that connect students’ prior knowledge and instruction to new content.
    Element II.6 Teachers evaluate and utilize curricular materials and other appropriate resources to promote student success in meeting learning goals.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers organize physical space to reflect an awareness of learner needs and curricular goals.
    b. Teachers incorporate a knowledge and understanding of technology in their lessons to enhance student learning.
    c. Teachers organize and effectively use time to achieve learning goals.
    d. Teachers select and adapt curricular materials to align with state standards and meet diverse learning needs.
    e. Teachers access appropriate resources to meet specific learning differences or needs.

    Standard III: Instructional Practice
    Teachers implement instruction that engages and challenges all students to meet or exceed the learning standards.

    Element III.1 Teachers use research-based practices and evidence of student learning to provide developmentally appropriate and standards-driven instruction that motivates and engages students in learning.
    Performance indicators:
    a. Teachers align instruction to standards.
    b. Teachers implement instruction proven to be effective in prior research.
    c. Students are actively and cognitively engaged through teacher facilitation of student-to-student and student-to-teacher interactions.
    Element III.2 Teachers communicate clearly and accurately with students to maximize their understanding and learning.
    Performance indicators:
    a. Students understand directions and procedures.
    b. Teachers use a variety of questioning techniques to advance student learning and reflection.
    c. Students’ comments and questions are acknowledged and utilized to advance learning.
    d. Students understand lesson content through a teacher’s use of multiple modalities, such as oral, written, graphic, kinesthetic, and/or tactile methods.
    e. Teachers adjust communication in response to student needs.
    Element III.3 Teachers set high expectations and create challenging learning experiences for students.
    Performance indicators:
    a. Teachers articulate high expectations for all students.
    b. Students have a clear understanding of measures of success.
    c. Teachers challenge and support all students by incorporating various instructional strategies, experiences, and resources.
    Element III.4 Teachers explore and use a variety of instructional approaches, resources, and technologies to meet diverse learning needs, engage students, and promote achievement.
    Performance indicators:
    a. Teachers use an understanding of students’ diverse backgrounds to individualize interactions and differentiate instruction.
    b. Teachers incorporate instructional approaches and technologies to provide students with opportunities to demonstrate mastery of learning outcomes.
    c. Teachers incorporate motivating and meaningful opportunities in instruction to engage students in learning experiences.
    Element III.5 Teachers engage students in the development of multidisciplinary skills, such as communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and use of technology.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Students synthesize and express ideas both in written and oral formats.
    b. Students work effectively with others, including those from diverse groups and with opposing points of view.
    c. Students make decisions, solve problems, and take actions as appropriate.
    d. Students solve problems and/or acquire new knowledge through creative and innovative approaches to learning. e. Students utilize technologies and resources to solve real world problems.
    Element III.6 Teachers monitor and assess student progress, seek and provide feedback, and adapt instruction to student needs.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers utilize various types of formative assessment during instruction to monitor and check for student understanding and assess progress.
    b. Teachers seek and provide feedback during and after instruction.
    c. Teachers adjust the pace of instruction, focus of instruction, and method of delivery based on students’ progress.

    Standard IV: Learning Environment
    Teachers work with all students to create a dynamic learning environment that supports achievement and growth.

    Element IV.1 Teachers create a mutually respectful, safe, and supportive learning environment that is inclusive of every student.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers are caring and respectful in their interactions with students.
    b. Teachers embrace student diversity as an asset in the classroom.
    c. Teachers recognize and reinforce positive interactions among students.
    d. Teachers create a climate of acceptance and respect.
    e. Teachers create an environment where students show responsibility to and for one another.
    Element IV.2 Teachers create an intellectually challenging and stimulating learning environment.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers encourage students to set high standards and expectations for their own performance.
    b. Teachers motivate students to initiate their own learning and strive to achieve challenging learning goals.
    c. Teachers promote students’ curiosity and enthusiasm for learning.
    d. Students are actively engaged in learning. e. Students openly express their ideas.
    f. Students show pride in their work and accomplishments.
    Element IV.3 Teachers manage the learning environment for the effective operation of the classroom.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers establish,communicate,and maintain clear standards and expectations for student behavior.
    b. Teachers develop,implement,and adapt routines and procedures to manage activities and transitions.
    c. Teachers facilitate instructional groupings to maximize student participation, cooperation, and learning.
    d. Students exhibit respectful classroom interactions.
    Element IV.4 Teachers organize and utilize available resources (e.g., physical space, time, people, technology) to create a safe and productive learning environment.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers arrange and adapt the physical environment to accommodate individual and group learning needs and to celebrate student accomplishments.
    b. Teachers ensure that all students have equitable access to available resources and technologies.
    c. Teachers effectively use the services and skills of available volunteers and paraprofessionals.
    d. Teachers know and implement policies and procedures to ensure student safety.

    Standard V: Assessment for Student Learning
    Teachers use multiple measures to assess and document student growth, evaluate instructional effectiveness, and modify instruction.

    Element V.1 Teachers design, adapt, select, and use a range of assessment tools and processes to measure and document student learning and growth.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers use appropriate diagnostic and on going assessment to establish learning goals and inform instruction.
    b. Teachers use formative assessment to inform teaching and learning.
    c. Teachers use summative assessment to measure and record student achievement.
    d. Teachers design assessments that are aligned with curricular and instructional goals.
    e. Teachers design and adapt assessments that accurately determine mastery of student skills and knowledge.
    f. Teachers use multiple measures and multiple formats, including available technology, to assess and document student performance.
    g. Teachers implement required assessment accommodations and modifications.
    Element V.2 Teachers understand, analyze, interpret, and use assessment data to monitor student progress and to plan and differentiate instruction.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers analyze data accurately.
    b. Teachers provide timely feedback to engage students in self-reflection and self-improvement.
    c. Teachers use assessment data to set goals and design and differentiate instruction.
    d. Teachers engage students in self-assessment of their learning goals, strategies, and outcomes.
    Element V.3 Teachers communicate information about various components of the assessment system.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers provide access to information on student assessments.
    b. Teachers provide appropriate information and interpretation of various assessment data.
    Element V.4 Teachers reflect upon and evaluate the effectiveness of their comprehensive assessment system to adjust assessment and plan instruction accordingly.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers demonstrate an understanding of assessment measures, grading, and procedures.
    b. Teachers develop a plan for their overall assessment system.
    c. Teachers use their plans and assessment data to adjust teaching and assessment practices.
    Element V.5 Teachers prepare students to understand the format and directions of assessments used and the criteria by which the students will be evaluated.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers communicate the purposes of the assessments they use.
    b. Teachers prepare all students for the demands of particular assessment formats, and appropriately modify assessments or testing conditions for students with exceptional learning needs.
    c. Teachers articulate assessment criteria to students and provide parameters for success.
    d. Teachers equip students with assessment skills and strategies.
    e. Students practice various formats of assessments using authentic curriculum.

    Standard VI: Professional Responsibilities and Collaboration
    Teachers demonstrate professional responsibility and engage relevant stakeholders to maximize student growth, development, and learning.

    Element VI.1: Teachers uphold professional standards of practice and policy as related to students’ rights and teachers’ responsibilities.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers demonstrate a high standard of honesty, integrity, ethical conduct, and confidentiality  when interacting with students, families, colleagues, and the public.
    b. Teachers are proactive and advocate to meet the needs of students.
    c. Teachers use self-reflection and stakeholders’ feedback to inform and adjust professional behavior.
    d. Teachers advocate, model, and manage safe, legal, and ethical use of information and technology, including respect for intellectual property and the appropriate documentation of sources.
    e. Teachers complete training in response to state and local requirements and jurisdictions.
    Element VI.2: Teachers engage and collaborate with colleagues and the community to develop and sustain a common culture that supports high expectations for student learning.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers support and promote the shared school and district vision and mission to support school improvement.
    b. Teachers participate actively as part of an instructional team.
    c. Teachers share information and best practices with colleagues to improve practice.
    d. Teachers demonstrate an understanding of the school as an organization within a historical, cultural, political, and social context.
    e. Teachers collaborate with others both within and outside the school to support student growth, development, and learning.
    f. Teachers collaborate with the larger community to access and share learning resources.
    Element VI.3: Teachers communicate and collaborate with families, guardians, and caregivers to enhance student development and success.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers invite families, guardians, and care givers to share information to enhance and increase student development and achievement.
    b. Teachers communicate in various ways student performance, progress, and expectations for student growth, and provide opportunities for discussion.
    c. Teachers suggest strategies and ways in which families can participate in and contribute to their students’ education.
    Element VI.4: Teachers manage and perform non-instructional duties in accordance with school district guidelines or other applicable expectations. 
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers collect required data and maintain timely and accurate records (e.g., plan books, lunch
    counts, attendance records, student records, etc.)
    b. Teachers manage time and attendance in accordance with established guidelines.
    c. Teachers maintain classroom and school resources and materials.
    d. Teachers participate in school and district events.
    Element VI.5: Teachers understand and comply with relevant laws and policies as related to students’ rights and teachers’ responsibilities.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers communicate relevant regulations and policies to stakeholders.
    b. Teachers maintain confidentiality regarding student records and information.
    c. Teachers report instances of child abuse, safety violations, bullying, and other concerns in accordance with regulations and policies.
    d. Teachers adhere to board policies, district procedures,and contractual obligations.
    e. Teachers access resources to gain information on standards of practice, relevant law, and policy that relate to students’ rights and teachers’ responsibilities.

    Standard VII: Professional Growth
    Teachers set informed goals and strive for continuous professional growth.
    Element VII.1 Teachers reflect on their practice to improve instructional effectiveness and guide professional growth. 
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers examine and analyze formal and informal evidence of student learning.
    b. Teachers recognize the effect of their prior experiences and possible biases on their practice.
    c. Teachers use acquired information to identify personal strengths and weaknesses and to plan  professional growth.
    Element VII.2 Teachers set goals for, and engage in, ongoing professional development needed to continuously improve teaching competencies. 
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers set goals to enhance personal strengths and address personal weaknesses in teaching practice.
    b. Teachers engage in opportunities for professional growth and development.
    Element VII.3 Teachers communicate and collaborate with students, colleagues, other professionals, and the community to improve practice.
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers demonstrate a willingness to give and receive constructive feedback to improve professional  practice.
    b. Teachers participate actively as part of an instructional team to improve professional practice.
    c. Teachers receive, reflect, and act on constructive feedback from others in an effort to improve their  own professional practice.
    Element VII.4 Teachers remain current in their knowledge of content and pedagogy by utilizing professional resources. 
    Performance Indicators:
    a. Teachers benefit from, contribute to, or become members of appropriate professional organizations.
    b. Teachers access and use professional literature and other professional development opportunities to increase their understanding of teaching and learning.
    c. Teachers expand their knowledge of current research as it applies to curriculum, instruction, and assessment methods.